Police said 300,000 pro-Palestinian protesters marched to call for a Gaza ceasefire, in demonstrations which coincided with Armistice Day.
Counter-protesters made up the "vast majority" of 126 arrests made, police said, while nine officers were injured.
The Met also condemned "extreme violence" by right-wing activists.
Counter-protesters, who included those from far-right groups, clashed with police near London's Cenotaph and in Chinatown.
Separately, the Met criticised the actions of "breakaway groups behaving in an intimidating manner" at the end of the pro-Palestinian march, and said arrests were made after fireworks struck officers in the face.
In a statement on Saturday Assistant Commissioner Matt Twist said: “This operation took place in unique circumstances, against a backdrop of conflict in the Middle East, on Armistice Day and following a week of intense debate about protest and policing. These all combined to increase community tensions.
“The extreme violence from the right wing protestors towards the police today was extraordinary and deeply concerning.
“While the Palestine Solidarity Campaign (PSC) march did not see the sort of physical violence carried out by the right wing, we know that for London’s Jewish communities whose fears and concerns we absolutely recognise, the impact of hate crime and in particular anti-Semitic offences is just as significant.”
No major protest is scheduled to take place on Remembrance Sunday, although the policing operation will continue with some 1,375 officers deployed amid commemoration events in the capital.
The Met said it had made 188 hate crime arrests - the majority for antisemitic offences - since the conflict between Hamas and Israel erupted on 7 October.
The Met Police have released images of the following five people in relation to hate crimes.
Anyone who can help us identify them should call 101, giving the reference 0326379/23.
Information can also be provided to Crimestoppers, anonymously, on 0800 555 111.