The Just Stop Oil campaign said 51 of its supporters took part in the demonstrations at seven petrol stations on Friday morning.
Some groups staged sit-down protests at entrances or glued themselves to pumps, while others moved from station to station damaging pumps.
They made fuel pumps unusable by breaking display glass and covered them in spray paint.
“Today’s action was timed to coincide with the announcement by Ofgem of a massive increase in electricity bills for October, which will push millions more into poverty, forced to choose between heating and eating,” the group said.
The Metropolitan police tweeted: “Protesters have targeted a number of petrol stations this morning, causing disruption and damaging pumps.
“Officers are at each of the targeted locations, we have made a number of arrests and specialist teams are removing those who are glued to pumps.”
Scotland Yard issued details of incidents at five forecourts between 6.20am and 6.47am.
- Arrests are ongoing after protestors glued themselves to pumps and the road at a petrol station in Western Avenue, Ealing
- Five men were arrested for criminal damage after targeting a petrol station on the Albert Embankment in central London
- Five people have been arrested for criminal damage after protestors caused damage at a petrol station in Talgarth Road, Hammersmith
- Eight men and women were arrested for criminal damage, highway obstruction and related offences after protesting at a petrol station in Ealing Road, Brentford
- Five men and two women were arrested after damage was caused to pumps at The Vale in Acton.
Police said protestors also set off flares and unfurled a banner on Westminster Bridge.
The Met said the banner was “quickly removed and the group left the area”.
The force added: “We will continue to monitor any protest activity across London.
“Our teams are ready to respond quickly to minimize disruption and take appropriate action against anyone causing criminal damage.”
Tez Burns, 34, a bicycle mechanic, from Swansea, taking part in the protest on Friday, said: "I can’t live with myself, knowing what I know, without doing all I can to stop new oil and gas.
"We are suffering the worst cost-of-living crisis in 40 years and facing climate breakdown because of our dependence on oil.
"Yet the government is allowing energy companies to drive us into poverty with skyrocketing energy bills, and is failing to protect us from the consequences of climate collapse.
"Enough is enough."
Friday’s protests were the third day of actions taken by supporters of Just Stop Oil this week.